Cut is the factor most directly influenced by man, everything else is dictated by nature. It is the cut that enables a diamond to make the best use of light. When a diamond is cut to good proportions, light is reflected and refracted from one facet to another and then dispersed through the crown or top of the stone. If the cut is too deep or too shallow, some light escapes through the pavilion or bottom before it can be reflected.
Chemical Composition: Carbon
Refractive Index: 2.418
Specific Gravity: 3.52
Locations Where Found: South Africa, Russia, Australia, Angola, Botswana
Colours: Colourless, Yellow, (other colours such as red are extremely rare)
Almost all diamonds contain extremely small inclusions. Most are not discernible to the naked eye and require magnification to become apparent. They are nature's fingerprints and make every diamond quite unique. The fewer there are, the rarer and more valuable and precious the stone.
Clarity is the term used to indicate the extent to which the diamond you purchase is free of these natural inclusions under ten times magnification.
The colour of diamonds can vary appreciably, ranging from totally colourless through to a yellow, grey or brown hue. Rare fancy coloured diamonds are also found and include blues, pinks, oranges, greens, yellows and browns.